The Short Sale Restriction (SSR) rule in the stock market

In this article, we will explain what the Short Sale Restriction is in a simple model. The SSR restricts short sales on stocks that have declined by 10% or more from their previous day’s close.

The SSR is active for the rest of the trading day after it has been activated. The procedure is valid for all equity securities, whether traded on an exchange or over-the-counter.

The Short Sale Restriction (SSR) is a restriction that applies to trading in specific securities when the price declined over 10% from the previous day’s closing price. 

This is done to prevent excess downward pressure on a given security’s price. For example, if a stock closes at $10 on Monday and opens the next day at $6, you can’t short sell it until it goes back up above $9. The restriction prevents people from using arbitrage opportunities to make money.

Short Sale Restriction prevents a potential destabilization

Short-selling is a type of trade that allows an investor to profit from the falling price of a stock. Short sellers assume that the price will decrease. Then they can repurchase the stocks at a lower price, return them to the lender, and pocket the difference as profit.

The goal of this restriction is to prevent market disruption. This limitation prevents short selling when the price is decreasing by more than ten percent. The restriction aims to prevent potential destabilization in the market by avoiding downward pressure on prices.

The Short Sale Restriction (SSR) was implemented because many traders short sell stocks and can cause a significant loss in equity. There is concern that short selling of stocks drives prices down and interferes with the market’s price discovery mechanism.

The Short Sale Restriction (SSR) was implemented in 2001 to prevent short sales on securities that rise or fall more than 10% in a single day. The restriction only applies to equity and debt instruments. It does not apply to other derivative products such as options, futures, and swaps.

What is the Short Sale Restriction (SSR)

The SEC has a rule about short-selling. It is called the Short-Sale Restriction (SSR). The SSR means that people cannot sell shares of a company if they think it will go down in value. 

The SEC put this regulation in place to prevent traders from gambling against stocks they believe are going to fall. When the SEC thinks that a company’s stock is likely to have a significant price decrease, it will restrict the company from selling more of its stocks.

There are two sorts of SSRs: permanent and temporary. For firms going through bankruptcy or other sizeable corporate transformation, permanent SSRs may be utilized. Temporary SSRs may be used to avoid a firm’s stock price from tumbling excessively if there is doubt about whether shareholders will accept the bidder company’s offer.

The day the Short Sale Restriction rule takes effect, short sales can only be completed at a price more significant than the current best bid. A stock under SSR is unable to hit the bid on a short-sale order. As a result, before your order can execute, you must wait for the price to rise above your offer price.

A stock under Short Sale Restriction is unable to hit the bid

The SSR restriction continues for the rest of the day. In many situations, the regulation may continue to the next day.

The Short Sale Restriction regulation applies to all firms listed on American exchanges, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and Nasdaq.

SSR is commonly triggered by stocks that have bad news, which gap down before the market opens.

The short-sale restriction was a trading regulation that began in 1938 and ended in 2007 that restricted short selling on a stock’s price decline. Market participants were unable to bet against a firm’s shares while they were falling starting in 2007.

In July 2007, the SEC removed this restriction, allowing shorting on any price fluctuation. In 2010, the SEC moved forward with a more demanding version of the up-or-down rule prohibiting short selling after a stock dropped 10% or more.

History of the Short Sale Restriction Rule

The SEC implemented the short-sale regulation in response to a widespread practice during the Great Depression. Investors pooled money and shorted shares.

The shareholders can then purchase additional securities at a lower price. Still, they’ll do so by driving the market value of the shares even lower in the near term and diluting the earnings of previous investors.

The SEC implemented the short sale regulation during the Great Depression

The short-sale rule was discussed for elimination shortly after the major stock exchanges were decimalized in the early 2000s.

It was felt that the restriction had been lifted as tick adjustments were decreasing in significance following the switch from fractions and as America’s stock markets had stabilized.

The SEC conducted a test between 2003 and 2004 to determine whether eliminating the short-sale restriction might have any ill effects. In 2007, the SEC made new rules for short-selling. Without these rules, the market would not be as good. It might not have as many people, or it could be hard to buy or sell stocks.

In July 2007, the SEC removed the restriction on shorting any price fluctuation by SEC.

The 2007-2008 Financial Crisis preceded the end of the short sale exemption. Thus the SEC began considering its return, and investors backed them up.

In the end, in 2010, the SEC advanced with a more stringent version of the up-or-down rule that forbids short selling after a stock depreciates 10 percent or more.

The fight between free market advocates and authorities

The fight between free-market advocates and authorities attempting to rein in speculators that the latter sees as profiteers have reemerged.

Some academics and organizations, including the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, have questioned the efficacy of such bans. However, global sentiment may be turning against short-selling.

When the global financial and European debt crises hit, authorities began to backstop tumbling markets. Since then, authorities have progressively eased restrictions on short selling, which has resulted in a dramatic reduction in a prohibited activity.

This is abusive when short-selling is employed in conjunction with fraudulent market rumors spreading.

On the other hand, BANS are criticized for undercutting free markets and restricting correct asset-pricing and trading volumes.

SSR are criticized for restricting correct asset pricing

Many academics have argued that the true impact of these bans is to raise trading fees and decrease trade volume.

During previous market downturns, issuers and other parties have blamed short-sellers for lowering stock prices of financial and other firms, particularly Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers.

Supporters of short selling say that it is essential because people can see problems in the financial industry.

According to many experts, short-sell restrictions do not decrease the risk of a sudden, large-scale stock price decline.

Short sellers’ removal of short sale limitations lowers the risk of stock price declines by providing stock market feedback and serving as a monitoring tool.

With short sellers, the price of stocks can go down quickly. They are often investors who are good at finding out information on bad news. Short sellers help make stock markets more efficient by reducing the time it takes for prices to adjust to new information.

Inefficient markets, market prices fully reflect publicly available information, and short selling is essential to reduce excessive stock valuations.

Markets are inefficient so short selling is necessary

However, since the market is complex and investors can’t see what short-sellers are doing, they don’t take advantage of when there’s bad news. That means that bearish investors can’t be in the market when a downturn happens because it hides negative information.

What is short selling?

When an investor buys a stock expecting the price to rise in the future, he goes long. When an investor goes short, it implies that he expects the price of a stock to fall.

The act of selling a stock that you don’t own is known as short selling. A short sale, for example, is the sale of a security for which the seller does not possess the title but agrees to deliver.

You can make money by selling back the stock to reduce your position size. If the price drops, you may repurchase the stock at a lower price and profit from the difference. You must repurchase stock if its value rises because you will lose money.


While there is debate over the efficacy of short-selling and the restrictions on them, it seems like global sentiment may be turning against this practice. 

Short selling can help to reduce stock valuations for companies that are undeserving of their current valuation. 

The BANS, or bans on short sales in America, have been criticized as undercutting free markets and restricting correct asset pricing and trading volumes. 

This article has given you a background about short sale restriction and why some people say we need more regulation. In contrast, others argue its detrimental effects on our economy.

Disclaimer this is not a financial advice.