Solana: 4th generation blockchain

Solana is an open-source project that makes it easier for people to use cryptocurrencies. It solves two big problems with currencies: scalability and speed. This means that more people can use cryptocurrencies without any issues.

Solana is a fourth-generation blockchain. It uses an open infrastructure to address one of the main problems of blockchain technology: scalability

Solana is an ecosystem, just like Ethereum. Developers can create their apps on Solana. The two main points of Solana are that it is decentralized, and the transactions happen quickly, which means a lot of them occur at one time.

Solana is a new type of blockchain that can be scaled to support larger numbers of transactions

Virtual currency transactions are not fast, so they cannot be considered an efficient means of payment. Solana supports around 50k to 100k transactions per second, making it the most scalable and best-performing blockchain in the world without permission. These transactions also have a transaction fee of $0.00025 per transaction, which is easy to use daily.

Solana is a company that uses a Proof of History Algorithm. This solves problems related to the integrity of timestamps and can solve all types of issues. Solana can do this at a rate of 50k or 100k per second, and it costs less than $0.001. Tether even uses this technology to issue stable coins (money with a value that doesn’t change).

What is history of Solana?

Solana’s idea is related to Anatoly Yakovenko, and Greg Fitzgerald wanted to make a cryptocurrency. They thought it could solve today’s network problems and be suitable for developing Dapps (decentralized apps) and phones.

The founders developed the road map for Solana over three years.

In 2017, Anatoly Yakovenko published the Proof-of-History paper. He was joined by his colleague Greg Fitzgerald and Stephen Akridge to build a prototype in 2018. They founded Solana Labs with Raj Gokal as the COO.

Solana Labs began seeking cash in the final quarter of 2018 to develop its new cryptocurrency network. Between 2018 and 2019, the team raised more than $ 20 million via private token sales. They announced the sales as a single Series A in the late summer of 2019.

The fundraising effort was designed to correspond with the protocol’s development, which proceeded through several test phases.

After raising $1.76 million in a CoinList public token sale, Solana became live on Mainnet Beta in March 2020. On the project’s beta network, basic transaction capabilities and smart contract functionality were accessible.

In 2020, Solana was put online and immediately got a positive response from traders and investors. SOL Token rose over $ 150 after investors were so enthusiastic about the project in a short period. Now the price is over $200.

Solana Labs is in San Francisco, California. It is the main contributor to the development of the project. People from all over the world work for this company, including people from Africa and Asia. The Solana Foundation is a non-profit organization that works to promote and support the project. They are based in Switzerland.

How Solana works

On each node of the Solana network, there is a clock that uses a verifiable delay function. The system can agree on the time, which is standard but decentralized.

A message is sent from a user interface to the network. The first validation node that receives it verifies the message and adds a timestamp onto the message.

This validator then forwards the data packet to the current block leader. They will organize all of the messages in order, based on when they were given.

Solana has several cutting-edge technologies to assist it in reaching its speed.

The proof of Stake Pos

In a distributed network, nodes can’t trust the timestamp on messages from other nodes, so they need to agree on the time and the order of events. Solana uses Proof of History (PoH) to overcome this problem by establishing a cryptographically safe time source throughout the network. PoH is a high-frequency Verifiable Delay Function (VDF) that takes some steps but provides one result that can be confirmed publicly.

Solana’s Proof of Stake (PoS) based consensus method uses the network’s Proof of History (PoH) approach as a reminder.

Solana uses Proof of History to establish a cryptographically safe time source throughout the network.

In the voting process, there is a limited time for each vote. A slot is 400 milliseconds. This can be shortened with successive votes, but one every 400ms must increase this time. In summary, secondary votes make it more challenging to reverse transactions in a specific slot.

The recent vote was at two slots. This means it took 800ms to process the information. For every new block that is added, old blocks are more likely to be confirmed. After 66% of the system validators have voted on the order of events, Tower BTF delivers finality. When a transaction is completed, it can’t be reversed back on-chain

The Solana mainnet is using delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPos). If you are a token holder, you can help the blocks be created and receive rewards by either staking your tokens or charging your tokens to trusted validators.

Anyone who is on the network can be a validator. Every time someone makes a new block, one of the validators gets to propose it. There is no minimum amount of money they have to put in, and they use computers with many things called GPUs that help make blocks faster.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)

Solana runs a consensus mechanism called Tower on top of Proof of History. Proof of History is like PBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance), but it can use the synchronized clock allowed by PoH to reach a consensus on network transactions.

When nodes vote for a specific fork, they agree to be locked out from voting on an opposing fork for a while. As they continue to vote the same way, the time they are locked out rises exponentially until they get 32 votes for that same fork. When nodes get more than 32 votes for one fork, then they will earn inflation income.

Turbine protocol

Solana uses a new way to send blocks between validators. A turbine is a piece of software that helps to increase the bandwidth of your network. It does this by splitting data into smaller packets.

The Turbine protocol is like BitTorrent, or what you use on the internet when you watch movies. When the block is streamed, it divides into tiny packets encoded with erasure codes and then sent to random peers on the network.

The Transaction Processing Unit (TPU)

The Solana Network uses a unique system for making sure the transactions are genuine. This is called validation. The validation happens in many steps, and it takes a long time to finish.

You need four different levels: Fetch, Signature Verification, Banking, and Writing. When the transaction is finished, it sends it to people who can make sure that they are valid transactions from other people on the network.

Archivers

An archiver is a particular group of nodes that store validated transactions and keep the history of the whole Solana ledger.

If data is too expensive to store, then only well-funded institutions will participate in the data. The Solana network does not have this problem because Archivers, who are nodes on the network, do data storage.

Restorers do not participate in consensus meetings. The network history is fragmented, and archivers archive small sections of it. These archivers need to show that they are storing the required data every so often, which they can do without participating in consensus meetings.

Other technologies

Sealevel: this is Solana’s way of handling fault tolerance. It works like an algorithm to let the nodes of a blockchain reach a consensus.

Gulf Stream: is the part that allows you to forward transactions to validators and block leaders. It helps reduce confirmation times.

Solana VS BitCoin

The first type of blockchain is based on the principle of Proof of Work. This means people have to use a computer to work hard and find the answer to mine for it.

This system makes the computers on servers work together to do things. It takes a lot of energy, but it can’t get bigger because there are few computers.

Solana versus BitCoin chart on tradingview

Over the years, Proof of Stake has been used to make transactions happen quickly and make the network lighter. Proof of History is a system that changes blockchain technology. We can use it to exchange money, make smart contracts, or develop applications based on a decentralized system.

Bitcoin has evolved into a massive cryptocurrency that is now regarded as a prized possession. However, Bitcoin is not an entirely new technology. It’s more like gold than anything else because it’s used more as a store of money rather than as a currency.

It has no practical application with cutting-edge technologies like Solana. We may say that Bitcoin has made a name for itself, but now rivals like Solana are more useful and quicker than Bitcoin.

Solana VS Ethereum

The main difference is that Solana is faster than Ethereum (which makes 13 transactions per second). Solana can do 50k to 100k transactions per second (TPS), 5,000 times faster than Ethereum. This speed can be done with a GPU instead of an ASIC miner.

Solana versus Ethereum chart on tradingview

Solana is maintaining a high TPS without compromising safety and decentralization. It appears that Solana is growing just as much as the top third-generation blockchains, including Cardano and Polkadot, both of which were created by two of Ethereum’s founding members.

Solana is a network that relies on its system to increase bandwidth. Unlike blockchain systems that use side chains, Solana does not need to do this.

Solana VS Stellar Lumen XLM

Stellar Lumen XLM is the first cryptocurrency that comes to mind when considering the features of Solana since they are both advertised for their speed in transactions and low transaction fees.

However, the two initiatives have several distinct differences. The first is that Stellar Lumen is a not-for-profit initiative and maybe more easily supported at an institutional level.

The project’s primary objective is to enable transactions and small payments between Europe and Africa, and numerous large firms are currently involved in it, such as IBM and Moneygram. Recently, the Stellar Development Foundation announced that Flutterwave has created a new method for Europeans and Africans to transfer money. TEMPO is using the Stellar (XLM) network and USDC to make remittance faster via the Stellar (XLM) network and USDC.

Solana versus Stellar Lumen chart on tradingview

Solana is a funded Venture Capital firm. Furthermore, Solana is more expensive and less technologically advanced than Stellar. However, while Solana has been on an upswing, Stellar has remained dormant in the past months.

SOL Token

The Solana token standard, SOL, is similar to the ERC-20 standard in the Ethereum blockchain.

SOL tokens will be burned in Solana’s deflation model. As part of the deflationary mechanism, Solana burns SOLs. Token burning reduces the number of coins available by removing them from the overall supply.

The Solana team is using five separate rounds of financing to give out tokens. Four of these were private sales that started in the first quarter of 2019 and ended in a $20 million Series A lead by Muliticoin Capital, disclosed in July 2019.

Solana raised $4 million in 2020. Some of the money will go to employees, some will go to the Solana foundation, and some for community projects.

Disclaimer this is not a financial advice.